The science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution. it includes Botany, Zoology, and Microbiology.

Classification, Distribution and Composition of Nucleic acids

Classification of nucleic acids Nucleic acids are named because: found in nucleus of cells Later on discovered outside the nucleus    DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid    RNA: Ribonucleic Acid Composition of nucleic acids Elemental composition:  carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous. Linear polymers of nucleotides (polynucleotides) Their building blocks are Nucleotides Nucleotides are energy rich compounds that drive metabolic …

Classification, Distribution and Composition of Nucleic acids Read More »

Major differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

The size of Prokaryotic cell range from 0.2-5.0 µm in diameter while that of Eukaryotic cells range from 10-40 µm in diameter. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nuclear membrane and the nuclear material consisting of a single chromosome and lies in the cytoplasm and is called nucleoid. Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, have …

Major differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells Read More »

Eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotes include all species of large complex organisms including animals, plants, and fungi and most species of protest microorganisms. Eukaryotes have their genome enclosed in the nucleus surrounded by the nuclear membrane. The term “eukaryote” is derived from Greek works, “eu” means ‘true’ and “karyon” means ‘nucleus’. The main characteristics of eukaryotic cells are: Cell …

Eukaryotic cells Read More »

Prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria, archaea and cynobacteria (blue-green algae). The cellular organization of prokaryotic cells is primitive as they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound cell organelles. Cell morphologies commonly found in prokaryotic cells are Coccus (pl. cocci) or round, Bacillus (plural : bacilli) or rod, Spirillum (plural spirilla) or spiral, Spirochete …

Prokaryotic cells Read More »


A plasmid is a small, circular, extrachromosomal double stranded DNA that has a capacity to replicate independently. Discovered by Laderberg in 1952. Naturally occur in bacteria The genes carried in plasmid benefits the survival of the organism by providing them with genetic advantages like antibiotic resistance, etc. Replicate independently and code for their own transfer. …

Plasmids Read More »