Developed by: G.N. Ramachandran in 1963 + and – + and + – and – 0 White regions: sterically disallowed for all amino acids except glycine Red regions: allowed regions namely the alpha-helical and beta-helical conformations Yellow areas: outer limit Exception: Glycine can lie anywhere
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes occurring in living matter. It majorly focus on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. In general it deals with enzymes, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, fats, hormones, DNA, RNA, etc.
Exergonic to Endergonic and vice-versa Catabolic to Anabolic and vice-versa Energy coupling: transfer of energy from one reaction to another in order to drive the second reaction. Exergonic reactions: delta G ≤ 0, spontaneous, release free energy Endergonic reactions: delta G ≥ 0, Non-sponatneous, absorbs free energy. Example: 6th and 7th step of glycolysis
Direct formation of ATP from ADP (or direct phosphorylation of ADP) which is linked with dehydrogenation and independent of oxidative phosphorylation. Example: 7th and 10th reactions of glycolysis
Each of the 9 glycolytic intermediates between glucose and pyruvate is phosphorylated. The phosphate group has 3 functions. Because the P group is ionized at pH 7 and has charge and because plasma membranes are not permeable to the charged molecules, the phosphorylated molecules can not pass the membranes. They are trapped in the cell. …
The conversion of glucose to 2 mols of pyruvate and net synthesis of ATP. An energy converting pathway that stopped at pyruvate would not proceed for long, because redox balance has not been maintained. GAP dehydrogenase uses NAD+ and there are limited amounts of NAD+ in the cell. Therefore, NAD+ must ne regenerated for glycolysis …