A vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated or expressed. Cloning vector is a small DNA molecule capable of self-replication inside the host cell. Cloning vector is used for replicating donor DNA fragment within host cell. Vectors can replicate …
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes occurring in living matter. It majorly focus on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. In general it deals with enzymes, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, fats, hormones, DNA, RNA, etc.
Developed by: G.N. Ramachandran in 1963 + and – + and + – and – 0 White regions: sterically disallowed for all amino acids except glycine Red regions: allowed regions namely the alpha-helical and beta-helical conformations Yellow areas: outer limit Exception: Glycine can lie anywhere
Exergonic to Endergonic and vice-versa Catabolic to Anabolic and vice-versa Energy coupling: transfer of energy from one reaction to another in order to drive the second reaction. Exergonic reactions: delta G ≤ 0, spontaneous, release free energy Endergonic reactions: delta G ≥ 0, Non-sponatneous, absorbs free energy. Example: 6th and 7th step of glycolysis
Direct formation of ATP from ADP (or direct phosphorylation of ADP) which is linked with dehydrogenation and independent of oxidative phosphorylation. Example: 7th and 10th reactions of glycolysis
Each of the 9 glycolytic intermediates between glucose and pyruvate is phosphorylated. The phosphate group has 3 functions. Because the P group is ionized at pH 7 and has charge and because plasma membranes are not permeable to the charged molecules, the phosphorylated molecules can not pass the membranes. They are trapped in the cell. …