Genetics

A branch of biology that deals with the heredity and variation of organisms. It studies how living things receive common traits from previous generations.

MENDELIAN THEORY OF INHERITANCE

INTRODUCTION Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Modern Genetics. He studied approximately 29000 pea plants to demonstrate inheritance of traits following certain laws. For seven years, Mendel bred pea plants and recorded inheritance patterns in the offspring. He studied seven characteristics in the garden pea. WHY A PEA PLANT Flower structure of pea plant ensured …

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Vectors

A vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated or expressed. Cloning vector is a small DNA molecule capable of self-replication inside the host cell. Cloning vector is used for replicating donor DNA fragment within host cell. Vectors can replicate …

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Comparison of different helical parameters of A, B, and Z – DNA

A – DNA Much wider and flatter. Right handed helix. major grooves: Narrow and deep minor grooves: wide and shallow Glycosidic bonds – anti-form 11 base pair B – DNA Solid central core. Right handed Major groove: wide and narrow Minor groove: narrow and deep Glycosidic bond – anti-form 10 base pair Z – DNA …

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Triple stranded DNA

Structure formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in Guanine. Backbone represent by tube. Likewise, Cytosine can form C-G-C. They are less stable than double helixes due to fact that the 3 negatively charged backbone strands in triple helix results in increased electrostatic repulsion. Samsung Galaxy M15 5G (Celestial Blue,6GB RAM,128GB Storage)| 50MP …

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Chargaff’s rule

1905-2002 By Erwin chargaff It states that in all DNA, Pyrimidines and Purines must have 1:1 Adenine : Thymine Cytosine : Guanine i.e., the amount of adenine = amount of thymine similarly, the amount of cytosine = amount of guanine. It indicated that DNA is symmetrical.                (A) Double bond (T)    and   (C) triple bond (G) …

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Hoogsteen pair

Additional Nucleotide forms H-bonding in Watson-Crick model. A.T – N7 also have a look on: realme NARZO 70 Pro 5G (Glass Gold, 8GB RAM,256GB Storage) Dimensity 7050 5G Chipset | Horizon Glass Design | Segment 1st Flagship Sony IMX890 OIS Camera 3.9 out of 5 stars(428) ₹21,999.00 (as of April 13, 2024 22:53 GMT +00:00 …

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Chargaff’s rule

1905-2002 By Erwin chargaff It states that in all DNA, Pyrimidines and Purines must have 1:1 Adenine : Thymine Cytosine : Guanine i.e., the amount of adenine = amount of thymine similarly, the amount of cytosine = amount of guanine. It indicated that DNA is symmetrical.                (A)Double bond (T)    and   (C) triple bond (G) iQOO …

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DNA : A carrier of genetic information

Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA as a genetic material First extracted from, nuclei in 1870 Named “nuclein” Chemical analysis: determined DNA as a weal acid and rich in Phosphorous Furthered named DNA, as lot of information provided by name: Deoxyribonucleic acid                        Contains sugar (deoxyribose) Weakly acidic Found in Nucleus Only four different subunits makes up DNA Chromosome …

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History of DNA

1865 : Gregor Mendel tells about the importance of “Factor” inheritance in pea plant. 1944 : Avery, Macleod and McCarty conduct experiment that shows DNA, not protein, causes bacterial transformation. 1953 : article by Watson and Crick in nature describes the structure of DNA for which they later win the Nobel prize. 1956 : Human …

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Cell division

•In prokaryotic cells, reproduction is simple, because prokaryotic cells possess a single molecule. binary fission takes place in prokaryotic cells of simple single-celled organisms such as bacteria. •In eukaryotic cells, multiple chromosomes must be copied and distributed to each of the new cells, and so cell reproduction is more complex. •Cell division in eukaryotes takes …

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