A branch of biology that deals with the heredity and variation of organisms. It studies how living things receive common traits from previous generations.


INTRODUCTION Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Modern Genetics. He studied approximately 29000 pea plants to demonstrate inheritance of traits following certain laws. For seven years, Mendel bred pea plants and recorded inheritance patterns in the offspring. He studied seven characteristics in the garden pea. WHY A PEA PLANT Flower structure of pea plant ensured …



A vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated or expressed. Cloning vector is a small DNA molecule capable of self-replication inside the host cell. Cloning vector is used for replicating donor DNA fragment within host cell. Vectors can replicate …

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Comparison of different helical parameters of A, B, and Z – DNA

A – DNA Much wider and flatter. Right handed helix. major grooves: Narrow and deep minor grooves: wide and shallow Glycosidic bonds – anti-form 11 base pair B – DNA Solid central core. Right handed Major groove: wide and narrow Minor groove: narrow and deep Glycosidic bond – anti-form 10 base pair Z – DNA …

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Triple stranded DNA

Structure formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in Guanine. Backbone represent by tube. Likewise, Cytosine can form C-G-C. They are less stable than double helixes due to fact that the 3 negatively charged backbone strands in triple helix results in increased electrostatic repulsion.